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Thiazide overdose

Definition

Thiazide is an ingredient found in certain medications used to treat high blood pressure. Thiazide overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medication.

This is for information only and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222.

Alternative Names

Diuretic antihypertensives overdose

Poisonous Ingredient

Thiazide is a type of drug called a diuretic. It prevents the body from reabsorbing sodium (salt) from part of the kidneys. Thiazide and related diuretics are used primarily to treat high blood pressure.

Where Found

  • Bendroflumethiazide (Naturetin)
  • Benzthiazide (Exna)
  • Chlorothiazide (Diuril, Diurigen)
  • Chlorthalidone (Thalitone, Hygroton)
  • Hydrochlorothiazide (Esidrix, HydroDiuril, Hydro-Par, Oretic)
  • Hydroflumethiazide (Diucardin, Saluron)
  • Indapamide (Lozol)
  • Methyclothiazide (Enduron, Aquatensen)
  • Metolazone (Zaroxolyn, Diulo)
  • Polythiazide (Renese)
  • Quinethazone (Hydromox)
  • Trichlormethiazide (Metahydrin, Naqua, Diurese)

Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

Symptoms

  • Coma (unresponsiveness)
  • Confusion
  • Dizziness
  • Drowsiness
  • Fainting
  • Fever
  • Frequent urination
  • Low blood pressure
  • Muscle cramps
  • Nausea
  • Pale-colored urine
  • Rash
  • Seizures
  • Skin sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitivity)
  • Slow breathing
  • Vision problems (vision appears yellow)
  • Weakness
  • Yellow skin
  • Vomiting

Home Care

Seek immediate medical help. Do NOT make a person throw up unless told to do so by poison control or a health care professional.

Before Calling Emergency

Determine the following information:

  • Patient's age, weight, and condition
  • Name of the product (ingredients and strengths, if known)
  • Time it was swallowed
  • Amount swallowed

Poison Control

The National Poison Control Center (1-800-222-1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. This national hotline number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions.

This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

Take the container with you to the hospital, if possible.

See: Poison control center - emergency number

What to Expect at the Emergency Room

The health care provider will measure and monitor the patient's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. Symptoms will be treated as appropriate. The patient may receive:

  • Activated charcoal
  • Blood tests to determine body chemical levels and blood acid/base balance
  • EKG (heart tracing)
  • Medicines to correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances
  • Urinalysis

Outlook (Prognosis)

How well a patient does depends on the severity of the symptoms. Patients usually respond well to treatment. Serious symptoms and death are unlikely.

References

Richardson WH, Betten DP, Williams SR, Clark RF. Nitroprusside, ACE inhibitors, and other cardiovascular agents. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 61.

Pfennig CL, Slovis DM. Electrolyte disorders. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al., eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 125.


Review Date: 1/18/2014
Reviewed By: Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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