Milia are tiny white bumps or small cysts on the skin. They are almost always seen in newborn babies.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Milia occur when dead skin becomes trapped in small pockets at the surface of the skin or mouth. They are common in newborn infants.
Similar cysts are seen in the mouths of newborn infants. They are called Epstein's pearls. These cysts also go away on their own.
Adults may develop milia on the face. The bumps and cysts also occur on parts of the body that are swollen (inflamed) or injured. Rough sheets or clothing may irritate the skin and mild reddening around the bump. The middle of the bump will stay white.
Irritated milia are sometimes called "baby acne." This is incorrect since milia are not a true from of acne.
Whitish, pearly bump in the skin of newborns
Bumps that appear across the cheeks, nose, and chin
Whitish, pearly bump on gums or roof of mouth (they may look like teeth coming through the gums)
Signs and tests
The doctor can often diagnose milia just by looking at the skin or mouth. No testing is needed.
In children, no treatment is needed. Skin changes on the face or cysts in the mouth often go away after the first few weeks of life without treatment. There are no lasting effects.
Adults may have milia removed to improve their appearance.
There is no known prevention.
Morelli JG. Diseases of the Neonate. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 639.
Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.