Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) usually begins in childhood.
Most cases of NBIA disease are due to a defect in a gene that makes a protein called pantothenate kinase 2. Patients with this genetic defect have a buildup of iron in parts of the brain. Several genetic causes of NBIA have now been discovered.
Call your health care provider if your child develops:
Increased stiffness in the arms or legs
Increasing problems at school
Genetic counseling is appropriate in families affected by this illness. There is no known way to prevent it.
Lang AE. Other movement disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 428.
Ropper AH, Samuels MA. Inherited metabolic diseases of the nervous system. In: Ropper AH, Samuels MA, eds. Adams & Victor's Principles of Neurology. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2014:chap 37.
Joseph V. Campellone, MD, Department of Neurology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.