Toxic megacolon is a life-threatening complication of other intestinal conditions. It causes widening (dilation) of the large intestine within 1 to a few days.
Toxic dilation of the colon; Megarectum
Toxic megacolon occurs as a complication of inflammatory bowel disease, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, and infections of the colon. The term "toxic" means that this complication occurs with infection or inflammation, and is very dangerous.
This is not the same as other forms of megacolon, such as pseudo-obstruction, acute colonic ileus, or congenital colonic dilation. These conditions occur without infection or inflammation.
The rapid widening of the colon may cause the following symptoms:
Peterson MA. Disorders of the large intestine. In: Marx JA, ed. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2009:chap 93.
Marrero F. Severe complications of inflammatory bowel disease. Med Clin North Am. 2008;92:671-686.
Todd Eisner, MD, Private practice specializing in Gastroenterology, Boca Raton, FL. Affiliate Assistant Professor, Florida Atlantic University School of Medicine. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.